Agra is one of the cities that say it was in its golden period during the reign of Mughals. Three rulers are responsible for it, namely Akbar Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Earlier Agra was called as Akbarabad. It was the capital of Mughal Empire at that time. Later Shah Jahan made Shahjahanabad to be the capital of Mughal Empire from Agra in 1648.
Agra got most of his monuments during this Golden period only. Babar, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, started with establishment of first formal Persian garden on the banks of Yamuna. The garden is known as Aram Bagh or Ram Bagh sometimes. The meaning of ‘Aram’ in English is Rest. Thus ‘Aram Bagh’ means ‘Garden of Relaxation’.
Akbar was the grandson of Babur. He not only added to the beauty of Agra but also to its value. It is also said that Akbar was the best king of India and was called as ‘Akabr, the Great’. Akbar was the name given to him by the Indians only. His original name was Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar. He established Great Red Fort. He made Agra to be a hub of learning, commerce, arts and religion. Fatehpur Sikri was also created by Akbar. It was located on the outskirts of Akbarabad. Fatehpur Sikri took the form of a Mughal military camp.
Kos Minar is a Persian word. It means ‘Mile Pillars’. This pillar is a milestone erected along the Grand Trunk Road made by Sher Shah Suri. As it is a milestone, it serves the purpose of a marker of distance for travelers. It was for routes between Agra and Ajmer, Agra to Lahore and from Agra to Mandu. Kos Minar is called as the Marvel of India by Sir Thomas Roe. It was an important part of India’s ‘National Communication System’ by Archaeological Survey of India. The Minar helped the travelers who lost their ways.
Jahangir was the son of Sher Shah Suri who had inclination to flora and fauna. He built garden inside Red Fort. This made it more beautiful. Besides with flora and fauna give various things of utility.
Shah Jahan had deep interest in architecture and he was in love with his wife, Mumtaz Mahal religiously. He gave The Taj Mahal to Akbarabad. When his wife Mumtaz Mahal passed away while giving birth to their 14th child, he got The Taj Mahal built with white marble only. It got completed in 1653. It is the epitome of love of a husband for his wife. The Taj Mahal is on the list of ancient Wonders of the World.
On same day Agra tour by car helped us know about all these facts and justified why the reign of the 3 rulers called as the Golden period of Agra. It gave us a clear picture of the contribution by the 3 rulers. It was really knowledgeable and interesting.